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Lugano Agno Agra Aranno Arogno Astano Barbengo Bedano Bedigliora Bioggio Bironico Bissone Busco Luganese Breganzona Brusion Arsizio Cademario Cadempino Cadro Cagiallo Camignolo Canobbio Carabbia Carabietta Carona Caslano Cimo Comano Croglio Cureggia Cureglia Curio Davesco Soragno Gentilino Grancia Gravesano Iseo Lamone Lopagno Lugaggia Lugano Magliaso Manno Maroggia Massagno Melano Melide Mezzovico-Vira Miglieglia Montagnola Monteggio Morcote Muzzano Neggio Novaggio Origlio Pambio-Noranco Paradiso Pazallo Ponte Capriasca Porza Pregassona Pura Rivera Roveredo Rovio Sala Capriasca Savosa Sessa Sigirino Sonvico Sorengo Tesserete Torricella-Taverne Vaglio Vernate Vezia Vico Morcote Viganello Villa Luganese 1.

Mendrisio Arzo Balerna Besazio Bruzella Caneggio Capolago Casima Castel San Pietro Chiasso Chiasso-Pedrinate Coldrerio Genestrerio Ligornetto Mendrisio Meride Monte Morbio Inferiore Morbio Superiore Novazzano Rancate Riva San Vitale Salorino Stabio Tremona Vacallo 1.

Riviera Biasca Claro Cresciano Iragna Lodrino Osogna 1. Valle Maggia Aurigeno Avegno Cavergno Cevio Giumaglio Gordevio Lodano Maggia Moghegno Someo 1.

Vaud 1. Vully Bellerive Chabrey Champmartin Constantine Montmagny Mur Vallamand Villars-le-Grand 1. Anlage 3 betreffend artikel 6 und 25 I. Dezember RO , und die den Positionen und des Internationalen Übereinkommens über das Harmonisierte System zur Bezeichnung und Codierung der Waren angehören.

Artikel 3 Im Sinne dieses Anhangs sind a "Spirituose mit Ursprung in" gefolgt vom Namen einer der Parteien: eine in den Anlagen 1 und 2 aufgeführte Spirituose, die im Gebiet der genannten Partei hergestellt wurde; b "aromatisiertes Getränk mit Ursprung in" gefolgt vom Namen einer der Parteien: ein in den Anlagen 3 und 4 aufgeführtes aromatisiertes Getränk, das im Gebiet der genannten Partei hergestellt wurde; c "Bezeichnung": die Bezeichnungen, die auf der Etikettierung, in den Begleitpapieren für die Beförderung der Spirituose bzw.

Artikel 4 1. Artikel 5 1. Artikel 7 Werden für Spirituosen oder aromatisierte Getränke gleichlautende Bezeichnungen verwendet, so wird jede Bezeichnung geschützt.

Artikel 9 Dieser Anhang verpflichtet keine der Parteien, eine Bezeichnung der anderen Partei zu schützen, die in ihrem Ursprungsland nicht oder nicht mehr geschützt ist oder dort ungebräuchlich geworden ist.

Artikel 11 Soweit es die einschlägigen Rechtsvorschriften der Parteien zulassen, wird der Schutz aufgrund dieses Anhangs auch natürlichen und juristischen Personen sowie Dachverbänden, Verbänden und Erzeuger-, Händler und Verbraucherorganisationen gewährt, die ihren Sitz im Gebiet der anderen Partei haben.

Artikel 12 Steht die Bezeichnung oder Aufmachung einer Spirituose oder eines aromatisierten Getränks, insbesondere auf dem Etikett, in den amtlichen Dokumenten oder in den Geschäftspapieren bzw.

Artikel 14 1. Artikel 16 1. Artikel 17 1. Anlage 1 Geschützte Bezeichnungen für Spirituosen mit Ursprung in der Gemeinschaft 1.

Getreidespirituosen Eau-de-vie de seigle de marque nationale luxembourgeoise Korn Kornbrand 4. Weinbrand Eau-de-vie de Cognac Eau-de-vie des Charentes Cognac Diese Bezeichnung kann durch eine der folgenden Angaben ergänzt werden: - Fine, - Grande Fine Champagne, - Grande Champagne, - Petite Fine Champagne, - Fine Champagne, - Borderies, - Fins Bois, - Bons Bois.

Artikel 2 Geltungsbereich 1. Artikel 3 Grundsatz der Gleichwertigkeit 1. Artikel 5 Etikettierung 1. Artikel 6 Drittländer 1. Artikel 8 Arbeitsgruppe für ökologische Erzeugnisse 1.

Artikel 9 Schutzmassnahmen 1. Anlage 1 Geltende Gemeinschaftsvorschriften - Verordnung EWG Nr. Dezember AS - Verordnung des Eidgenössischen Volkswirtschaftsdepartements vom Dezember AS Von der Gleichwertigkeitsregelung ausgeschlossen sind: Schweizerische Erzeugnisse, deren Bestandteile im Zuge der Umstellung auf den ökologischen Landbau gewonnen wurden.

Artikel 2 Gegenstand 1. Das Bundesamt für Landwirtschaft kann unter folgenden Bedingungen die in der Anlage zu diesem Anhang aufgeführten Kontrollstellen mit der Konformitätskontrolle beauftragen: - Das Bundesamt für Landwirtschaft notifiziert der Europäischen Kommission die beauftragten Stellen, - Diese Kontrollstellen stellen die Bescheinigung nach artikel 3 aus, - Die beauftragten Stellen müssen über Kontrolleure mit einer vom Bundesamt für Landwirtschaft anerkannten Ausbildung, über die Anlagen und Geräte, die für die zum Zwecke der Kontrolle notwendigen Prüfungen und Analysen erforderlich sind, und über angemessene Einrichtungen für die Informationsübermittlung verfügen.

Artikel 3 Kontrollbescheinigung 1. Artikel 4 Informationsaustausch 1. Artikel 5 Schutzklausel 1. Artikel 6 Arbeitsgruppe Obst und Gemüse 1.

Anlage Schweizerische Kontrollstellen, die zur Ausstellung der in Anhang 10 artikel 3 vorgesehenen Kontrollbescheinigung zugelasssen sind 1.

Fruit-Union Suisse Baarer Str. Titel I dieses Anhangs regelt - die Bekämpfung bestimmter Tierseuchen und die Seuchenmeldung; - den Handel mit lebenden Tieren, ihrem Sperma, ihren Eizellen und Embryonen sowie die Einfuhr dieser Tiere und Erzeugnisse aus Drittländern,; 2.

Titel II dieses Anhangs regelt den Handel mit tierischen Erzeugnissen. TITEL I HANDEL MIT LEBENDEN TIEREN, IHREM SPERMA, IHREN EIZELLEN UND EMBRYONEN Artikel 2 1.

Artikel 8 Multilaterale Verpflichtungen Die Bestimmungen dieses Titels berühren nicht die Rechte und Pflichten, die sich für die Parteien aus dem WTO-Übereinkommen und seinen Anhängen und insbesondere dem SPS-Übereinkommen ergeben.

Artikel 9 Geltungsbereich 1. Artikel 11 Anpassung an regionale Bedingungen 1. Artikel 12 Gleichwertigkeit 1. Die Anerkennung der Gleichwertigkeit erfordert die Bewertung und Anerkennung der - Rechtsvorschriften, Normen, Verfahren sowie laufenden Programme, mit denen die Einhaltung der nationalen Vorschriften und der Vorschriften des Einfuhrlandes gewährleistet und kontrolliert wird; - Organisation schriftlich dokumentiert der zuständigen Behörde n , ihrer Befugnisse, ihres hierarchischen Aufbaus, ihrer Arbeitsweise und Ressourcen; - Leistungsfähigkeit der zuständigen Behörde hinsichtlich der Durchführung des Kontrollprogramms und des erreichten Garantieniveaus.

Bei dieser Bewertung tragen die Parteien den bisherigen Erfahrungen Rechnung. Artikel 13 Feststellung der Gleichwertigkeit 1.

Artikel 16 Überprüfung 1. Diese Verfahren werden nach dem Verfahren des Anlage 9 durchgeführt. Artikel 17 Notifizierung 1.

Artikel 18 Informationsaustausch und Mitteilung von Forschungsergebnissen und wissenschaftlichen Daten 1. Die Verbindungsstellen für diesen Informationsaustausch sind in Anlage 11 angegeben.

Artikel 20 Schutzklausel 1. Maul- und Klauenseuche A. Klassische Schweinepest A. Pferdepest A. Gefluegelpest A.

Newcastle-Krankheit A. Fischseuchen A. Andere Tierseuchen A. Seuchenmeldung A. Anlage 2 Tiergesundheit: Handel und Vermarktung I.

Rinder und Schweine A. Zur Aufrechterhaltung des Status der amtlich anerkannten Brucellosefreiheit des nationalen Rinderbestands verpflichtet sich die Schweiz, folgende Anforderungen zu erfuellen: a Jedes brucelloseverdächtige Rind ist den zuständigen Behörden zu melden und amtlich auf Brucellose zu untersuchen.

Zur Aufrechterhaltung des Status der amtlich anerkannten Tuberkulosefreiheit des nationalen Rinderbestands verpflichtet sich die Schweiz, folgende Anforderungen zu erfuellen: a Zur Nachweisführung über die Herkunft der Tiere wird ein Kennzeichnungssystem eingeführt; b Schlachtkörper werden von einem amtlichen Tierarzt einer Fleischuntersuchung unterzogen; c jeder Tuberkuloseverdacht bei einem lebenden, verendeten oder geschlachteten Tier wird den zuständigen Behörden gemeldet; d in jedem Falle veranlassen die zuständigen Behörden die erforderlichen Untersuchungen zur Abklärung des Verdachts und ermitteln die Herkunfts- und Transitbestände.

Zur Aufrechterhaltung des Status der amtlich anerkannten Leukosefreiheit des nationalen Rinderbestands verpflichtet sich die Schweiz, folgende Anforderungen zu erfuellen: a Der nationale Rinderbestand wird im Rahmen von Stichprobeuntersuchungen überwacht.

Zur Aufrechterhaltung dieses Status verpflichtet sich die Schweiz, folgende Anforderungen zu erfuellen: a Der nationale Rinderbestand wird im Rahmen von Stichprobeuntersuchungen überwacht.

Zur Aufrechterhaltung dieses Status verpflichtet sich die Schweiz, folgende Anforderungen zu erfuellen: a Der nationale Schweinebestand wird im Rahmen von Stichprobeuntersuchungen überwacht.

Dabei sind folgende Anpassungen vorzunehmen: - Im Titel werden die Worte "und der Schweiz" eingefügt; - unter Punkt 3 werden die Worte "oder der Schweiz" eingefügt; - in Anmerkung 4 Muster I , Anmerkung 5 Muster II , Anmerkung 4 Muster III und Anmerkung 5 Muster IV werden die Worte "für die Schweiz: Kontrolltierarzt" angefügt.

Schafe und Ziegen A. Dabei sind folgende Anpassungen vorzunehmen: - Im Titel werden die Worte "und der Schweiz" eingefügt; - unter Punkt 3 Buchstabe a werden die Worte "oder der Schweiz" eingefügt.

Equiden A. Gefluegel und Bruteier A. Tiere und Erzeugnisse der Aquakultur A. Rinderembryonen A. Rindersperma A. Schweinesperma A.

Andere Tierarten A. Anlage 3 Einfuhr lebender Tiere und bestimmter tierischer Erzeugnisse aus Drittländer I.

Europäische Gemeinschaft - Rechtsvorschriften A. Schweiz - Rechtsvorschriften Verordnung vom Durchführungsvorschriften Im allgemeinen wendet das Bundesamt für Veterinärwesen die unter Ziffer I dieser Anlage aufgelisteten Rechtsvorschriften an.

Anlage 4 Tierzucht, einschliesslich Einfuhr von Zuchtmaterial aus Drittländer I. Schweiz - Rechtsvorschriften Die schweizerischen Behörden haben einen Gesetzesentwurf betreffend die Landwirtschaft erarbeitet, über den zur Zeit beraten wird.

Anlage 5 Kontrollen und Kontrollgebühren KAPITEL 1 Handel zwischen der Europäischen Gemeinschaft und der Schweiz I.

ANIMO-Netz In Zusammenarbeit mit dem Bundesamt für Veterinärwesen beteiligt die Kommission die Schweiz am informatisierten Netz ANIMO. Handelsvorschriften für Tiere, die zum Grenzweidegang bestimmt sind 1.

Die Tiere stehen während der gesamten Weidezeit unter zollamtlicher Kontrolle. Sondervorschriften A. Vorschriften für Tiere bei Durchfuhr durch das Gebiet der Gemeinschaft oder der Schweiz A.

Allgemeine Vorschriften Die folgenden Bestimmungen gelten für die Fälle, die nicht unter die Abschnitte II bis V fallen. Bei lebenden Tieren aus der Gemeinschaft oder aus der Schweiz, die zur Einfuhr bestimmt sind, werden folgende Kontrollen durchgeführt: - Dokumentenprüfungen, - Nämlichkeitskontrollen, und im Verdachtsfall - physische Kontrollen.

Grenzkontrollstellen - Handel zwischen der Europäischen Gemeinschaft und der Schweiz A. Durchführungsvorschriften A. Gegenseitige Unterstützung A.

Kennzeichnung von Tieren A. SHIFT-System A. Tierschutz A. Sperma, Eizellen und Embryonen Die Bestimmungen des Kapitels 1 Absschnitt IV und des Kapitels 2 dieser Anlage gelten entsprechend.

Gebühren A. Gemeinschaftsausfuhren in die Schweiz Diese Ausfuhren unterliegen den Vorschriften für den innergemeinschaftlichen Handel.

Schweizer Ausfuhren in die Gemeinschaft Diese Ausfuhren erfolgen nach den einschlägigen Gemeinschaftsvorschriften. Bis zur Festlegung dieser Muster gelten die derzeit erforderlichen Bescheinigungen.

Anlage 7 Zuständige Behörden TEIL A Schweiz Das Eidgenössische Volkswirtschaftsdepartement und das Eidgenössische Departement des Inneren sind gemeinsam für die Hygiene- und Veterinärkontrollen zuständig.

TEIL B Europäische Gemeinschaft Die Veterinärbehörden der einzelnen Mitgliedstaaten und die Europäische Kommission sind gemeinsam für die Kontrollen zuständig.

Anlage 8 Anpassung an regionale Bedingungen Anlage 9 Leitlinien für die Prüfverfahren Zum Zwecke dieser Anlage wird "Prüfung" als Effizienzbewertung definiert.

Allgemeine Grundregeln 1. Prüfungen und darauf beruhende Entscheidungen müssen transparent und kohärent sein. Grundregeln für den Prüfer Die für die Prüfung Verantwortlichen erstellen einen Plan, vorzugsweise nach international anerkannten Normen, der folgenden Parametern Rechnung trägt: 2.

Gegenstand, Geltungsbereich und Tragweite der Prüfung; 2. Sprache n , den der denen die Prüfung abgehalten und der Bericht erstellt wird; 2.

Identität der Prüfer und des Prüfungsleiters, falls es sich um eine Prüfergruppe handelt; für die Prüfung spezieller Systeme und Programme kann eine entsprechende berufliche Qualifikation verlangt sein; 2.

Dieser Plan sollte zuvor mit Vertretern der geprüften Stelle abgestimmt werden. Grundregeln für die geprüfte Stelle Zur Erleichterung der Prüfung hält sich die geprüfte Stelle an folgende Grundregeln: 3.

Verfahren 4. Eröffnungssitzung Die Vertreter beider Parteien organisieren eine Eröffnungssitzung. Prüfung vor Ort 4. Geprüfung Wird eine Folgeprüfung durchgeführt, um die Behebung der beanstandeten Mängel zu kontrollieren, reicht es möglicherweise aus, nur die Aspekte zu kontrollieren, die effektiv beanstandet wurden.

Die Arbeitsunterlagen können Kontrollbögen mit folgenden Bewertungselementen umfassen: - Rechtsvorschriften, - Aufbau und Arbeitsweise der Überwachungsdienste und Bescheinigungsstellen, - Betriebsmerkmale und Betriebsabläufe, - Hygienestatistiken, Probenahmepläne und Ergebnisse, - Durchführungsvorschriften und -verfahren, - Notifizierungsverfahren und Rechtsbehelfe, - Ausbildungsprogramme.

Bericht Ein Entwurf des Prüfungsberichts wird der geprüften Stelle so bald wie möglich übermittelt. Anlage 10 Grenzkontrollen und Kontrollgebühren A.

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GB Materials and Methods The present study is based on material from two major sources. The first are specimens from the many institutions and private collections listed in the 'Abbreviations' and 'Acknowledgments' sections.

This study, based mainly on empty shells and some alcohol-preserved animals, allowed for an analysis of geographical distribution and morphological variation.

Depending on the rarity of the species or its representation in collections , only single examples could be obtained for some, while others were represented by thousands.

In total more than 22, Recent Indo-Pacific specimens plus several thousand Atlantic and fossil specimens for comparison have been studied from more than 50 institutional and private collections, which probably represents the majority of Indo-Pacific architectonicid collection holdings worldwide.

Most of the new and unexpected findings came from a study of the large holdings of previously unstudied architectonicids of the U.

Fish Commission Steamer 'ALBATROSS' Expeditions in Washington USNM , and from material supplied by the museums in Sydney AMS , Los Angeles LACM , Paris MNHNP , Wellington NMNZ , and Pietermaritzburg NMP , gathered during recent deep-water dredgings.

All available type material was studied; only in cases when the holding institution was not willing to loan type material and a visit could not be arranged Imperial Household, Tokyo , were studies based on available photographs.

The fossil record older than Pleistocene has in most cases not been studied in detail; inclusion of the many hundred described nominal fossil species was beyond the scope of this work.

However, type material of type species of nominal architectonicid genera was investigated, as well as many additional type specimens of fossil European, African, Austral-Asian, and American architectonicids.

In all cases of homonymy or suspected synonymy of Recent and fossil forms, the fossil type specimens if available were studied.

Whenever a fossil form in all its protoconch and teleoconch characters fell within the established range of variation of a Recent form, the two were considered conspecific.

All type material of species newly described in this work has been deposited in collections of established research institutions.

Throughout this monograph, catalog numbers are cited only for type material, figured specimens or other pertinent voucher material, not for material studied in general.

To keep the volume of this publication within limits, only the collections that are holding such material are listed for each species.

However, the data for the largest single architectonicid collection studied USNM , with representatives of most species discussed, have been computerized during this project, and a printed listing has been deposited in the library of the Division of Mollusks of that institution.

Other collections for which listings are available are Delaware Museum of Natural History computerized and National Museum of Wales published listing; see BIELER in TREW, The second main source of data and material came from personal field studies in South Africa and Panama, as well as from comparative studies in Bermuda in the Atlantic Ocean.

These studies, conducted in South Africa and Panama, Bermuda , concentrated on observations of the living animals, anatomy, ecology, and variability within and between populations, mainly of members of the genus Heliacus.

For gross dissections, shells were cracked and animals subsequently relaxed using magnesium chloride in distilled water or magnesium sulfate crystals "epsom salts".

Air dried shells, protoconchs, jaws and opercula were coated, and observed and photographed with a scanning electron microscope SEM, coating method and machine model depending on the electron microscope unit used.

One problem in working with Architectonicidae is that only a few species, usually from shallow water, are frequently obtained alive or are at least represented as alcohol-preserved material in collections.

Anatomical data derived from the study of this material to date serves taxonomically mainly at the generic level. Most species are known only from empty shells and comparative systematic work at the species level thus had to concentrate on shell characters.

An advantage, however, is that this largely shell-based system can be applied to fossil specimens. For the majority of the specimens studied, the following characters were observed and recorded using calipers and a dissecting microscope with a calibrated eyepiece at x magnification; mm accuracy given in parentheses : teleoconch diameter 0.

In addition, notes were compiled on characters of the periostracum and operculum, and on the shape and degree of heterostrophy of the protoconch viewed from above and, if possible, through the umbilicus; often aided by sketches made with drawing tube at 50x.

In groups with numerous similar forms e. Protoconch diameter was the largest protoconch dimension perpendicular to the columellar axis visible on the teleoconch thus reflecting slightly less than the actual larval shell diameter in tightly coiled specimens , measured from the outer comer of the varix see Fig.

Shell height was the greatest dimension parallel to the columellar axis, measured from the apex to the base of the aperture. Umbilical diameter was in ventral view the greatest distance between the columellar lip and the far side of the umbilicus, measured to the most distant tip of an umbilical crena.

The varix area, often colored dark brown, is usually recognizable even in eroded specimens. In badly eroded but important specimens, such as type material, the protoconch measurements and some characters could often be collected by viewing the protoconch through the teleoconch umbilicus.

Aberrant specimens with obviously distorted or repaired shells were measured but the results were not used in descriptions or statistics.

The terminology used for teleoconch characters, especially the various names for elements of the spiral sculpture, is based on a system originally used by BAYER fig.

For explanations see diagram, last page. General Part I. The shell shape is usually roundly cone-shaped, but occasionally coin- or disk-shaped. The umbilicu s is a lways open, ranging from very wide to very narrow Fig.

The periphery is rounded or furnished w ith one or two major keels. The sculpture consists of more o r less finely gemmate or nodose spiral ribs. The nodules are produced by the intersection of usually weaker axial grooves with the deeper grooves between the spiral ribs.

In some forms especially Philippia and Psilaxis the spiral ribs and grooves are secondarily reduced. Re latively smooth forms, especially members of Architectonica and Psilax is, often have a glossy shell surface and the nodules of the remaining spi ra l ribs a re usually flattened.

Only occasionally is stronger axial sculpture present. The diagram last page shows a generalized sculptural pattern in this family.

This ground plan is developed, at least initially, in all members of the family and provides excellent taxonomic characters see below. A number of major ribs and areas have been homologized throughout the family upper, lower and infra-peripheral ribs, see diagram last page and illustrations in sections on genus-group taxa , based on thei r relative position in early postlarval ontogeny and on specific qualities such as size, sculpture and coloration BIELER, a, d , a, b, , All architectonicid s show a noticeable growth mark in the initial third of the first teleoconch w ho rl, markin g the end of the early postlarval phase see Fig.

In some specimens, especially of the ge nus Heliaws, internal septa were noted Fig. X -ray photograph of the shell of Arcl1itecto11ica maxima Pu rr1, [USNM , courtesy M.

H :ir:iscwych]. Note widely open umbilicus. I N, 1. Arrow marks "stage of arrested growth"; line indicates measured protoconch size.

Most archi tectonicid shells have a color pattern of more or less well- defined brown flecks at least on the peripheral ri bs.

Especially in forms from shallow water, lively color markings are present, frequently form ing regu lar patterns, flames or bands in va rious shades of brow n.

T he pigment patterns, generated by the coordinated activities of secretory cells along the length of the mantle organ, are often disturbed after repaired shell damage.

Especially in the genus Architectonica, a number of nominal species have been based on such " unique" specimens see BIELER, d, a, , and discussion under Architectonica perspectiva.

T eleoconch septation in Hclia cm implcxm M1GHELS, Specimen cut and ground to plane of penultimate whorl. It is smooth, glossy, often transparent and occasionally has a white or yellowish- to dark-brown pattern of blotches.

A varix-forming peritreme always separates the protoconch from the first teleoconch whorl. Its lower side visible on the upper side of the teleoconch has strongly bulging, inflated whorls.

Several species display a more or less distinct sculpture of axial folds in the protoconch suture Figs. A distinct sculpture of axial ribs, known from some Tertiary architectonicids BIELER, b: pl.

Some groups also have a distinct ridge on the protoconch, situated in the anal region of the larva. The ridge is referred to as the "anal keel" ROBERTSON, A few species, especially of Philippia, have a callous thickening partly or wholly overlapping the anal keel and the false umbilicus.

The functional significance of the anal keel and callus is not known. All architectonicid protoconchs are positioned at an oblique angle to the teleoconch heterostrophy, see below and are multispiral.

The measured protoconch size range of an architectonicid species usually displays a pattern of normal statistical distribution.

This phenomenon might be linked to bimodal egg size [MINNITI et al. Periostracum The periostracum consists of a relatively thin yellowish or transparent conchiolin layer, which swells strongly when wet.

In dried condition it shrinks and flakes off in whitish or brownish scales. It overlays the teleoconch sculpture, frequently enhancing sculp- tural elements such as spiral ribs and nodules by its uneven thickness.

While hiding weaker sculptural elements of the teleoconch such as axial and spiral threads, the periostracum adds its own sculpture to the overall appearance of the shell in the form of microscopic spiral sculpture.

In sand-dwelling forms, the periostracum is usually worn off and remnants of it are only found in the spiral grooves and on the umbilical wall.

In the "polyp-dwelling" Heliacus species, even fully grown specimens usually retain the periostracum, most prominently developed in H infundibuliformis see, e.

Calcareous opercula have been reported for fossil forms e. In species with relatively small, round apertures the multispiral operculum is of circular outline; tight closure is achieved by a flexible 4 5 Examples of architectonicid protoconch morphology, sketched perpendicular to teleoconch axis.

Above: as visible on shell apex; below: as visible through teleoconch umbilicus, with outline of apical aspect superimposed stippled line.

GRAY in M. GRAY, , see Fig. Architectonicid opcrcula. In larger fo rms Arcl1itecton. All archi- tectonicid opercula share a construction of spirally arranged lamellae, and a peg-like process on the bod y side, by which it is anchored to the foot muscle.

The peg can be vari ously shaped and in some g roups e. The spira l lamellae of opercula are often compressed , resulting in a flat or even overall concave shape Figs.

In some g roups e. The functional significance of this shape, w hich may be present or absent in closely related form s e.

Opcrcular pegs. Similar opercular shapes are known from several not-closely related gastropod families, such as Vermetidae Dendropoma , Hydrobiidae Gocea and Siliquariidae Tenagodus.

All of these groups also convergently share the feature of a partly uncoiled shell in some or all members; the cone-shaped operculum may be linked to that trait.

Heterostrophy The body of an architectonicid larva is dextrally organized. This is demonstrated externally by the operculum see Fig.

Despite its dextral organization, how- ever, the larval shell appears to be sinistrally coiled. The condition of having a dextrally organized body in an apparently sinistral shell, often called "hyperstrophy", occurs in several gastropod groups, e.

The protoconch apex accordingly is visible within the umbilicus of the teleoconch. Since the difference between architectonicid "anastrophy" and the "heterostrophy" of other families e.

Several reports of sinistral architectonicids can be found in the literature e. While sinistrality is a frequent phenomenon in the Gastropoda, with the regular or occasional occurrence of sinistral animals in a number of families e.

All records of "sinistral" architectonicids were found to refer to abnormal dextral hyperstrophy, whereby the teleoconch retains the hyperstrophic coiling of the protoconch.

Shifting of the mantle, resulting in a change from hyperstrophic protoconch to orthostrophic teleoconch in a "normal" architectonicid, is apparently blocked in these animals.

Other cases known are specimens of H. Larval shells unidentified Allantic architectonicid larvae. Anatomy and Biology Anatomy Previous anatomica l studies on A rchitectonicidae have bee n published by!

MERING , Bouv1rn a, b, 2 , R1sBEC , MERRILL , CuMo , and especially, H ASZPRUNAR a,b,c. ROBERTSON a, discussed the anatomical characters of th e fami ly in their relati onships to o ther groups.

The following summarizes the published informatio n, aug mented by personal observa tions mainly on species of Arcl1itectonica and Heliac11s s.

The anterior portion of the foot is produced into two pointed, ve1y mobile lobes. The sole has two gland openings, one immediately behind the anterior margin, and a much s maller one in the center regio n.

The long, tapering, very slender in living condition cephalic tentacles carry black, lens-equipped eyes at their outer bases.

T he "false mouth" openi ng of the proboscis sheath opens at the tip of a short snout. The mantle cavity comprises about half of the body whorl of the shell; the an imal is able to fully retract and tightly close the ape rture w ith its operculum.

The mantle cavity is longitudinally d ivided by a d orsal crest, built up by the posterior pedal gland , the large arterial vessel, so-called chordoid tiss ue3, long saliva ry gla nd s, and a ciliary tract at its outer edge.

This ventral ciliary tract, together w ith an opposing dorsal strip of ciliated tissue, produces a wate r current leading from left to right.

The strongly developed osphradium, with its semi-circul arly a rran ged lamellae above a large osphradial ga nglion, is situated anteriorly on the left, incurrent side.

Its morphology 2 It should be noted that the specimens studied by BoUVJrn were not "Solari trocMeare H 1NDS, ," as stated by the author, but the closely related Architectonica perspectiv a LrNNi;, The shells of the material o n which the anatomical stud ies were based Zanzibar, ROSSEAU Coll.

The foliobranch gill lamellae ROBERTSON, 4a are not homologues of the prosobranch ctenidium or the opisthobranch plicatidium MORTON, , but epithelial extensions of the well- developed hypobranchial gland.

They have no skeletal supporting rods or ciliated bands. The gill and hypobranchial gland are situated to the right of the dorsal ciliated strip, in the excurrent chamber.

The rectum and gonoducts are located on the right side of the mantle cavity, while the kidney occupies the posterior roof.

The kidney is pallially situated and supplied, rather than viscerally as in "prosobranch" gastropods HAsZPRUNAR, b: The heart is positioned immediately before the proximal dorsal end of the mantle cavity.

Its atrium is anterior-left, its ventricle posterior-right in position. The pericardium communicates with the kidney lumen by a narrow ciliated duct.

The anterior right comer of the mantle cavity is occupied by the massive, glandular oviduct and the pallial vas deferens.

The male has no penis. In hermaphroditic forms see below , male, female and sperm-receptive structures are almost completely separate with independent openings.

The nervous system is distinctly streptoneurous, epiathroid, without zygoneury, and has as in the "prosobranchs" only three ganglia supra-, subintestinal-, and visceral on the long visceral loop.

The highly specialized buccal apparatus shows two main types within the family. In most groups e. The connec- tives between buccal and cerebral ganglia run within the paired proboscis protractors which in retracted condition do not pass through the cerebropedal nerve ring.

Discotectonica and Granosolarium have a short proboscis sheath, behind which the proboscis divides into a ventral part, containing a large rod-like structure see below , and a dorsal part, the esophagus proper.

Proboscis retractors are absent, their function apparently taken over by the strong longitudinal musculature of the esophagus. In all genera the esophagus is cuticularized, the stomach large and unspecialized, and the short intestine is separated from the rectum by a strong sphincter.

A dark glandular area next to the anus, close to the anterior right mantle margin, appears to represent an anal gland. The visceral mass contains the stomach, receptaculum seminis, the unpaired digestive gland as well as testis and ovary.

The columellar muscle is ventral in position and extends about three quarters of the body whorl. The soft-body coloration results from a combination of black in preservative brownish pigment in the epidermal cells, white bodies embedded in the tissue, and to a lesser extent and only in small forms from internal organ coloration discernible through the tissue.

Species with dark shell colors usually also have darker body pigmentation. Relative to the coloration of the remaining body, the tentacles and the anterior part of the foot the body regions exposed during normal activities are most strongly pigmented; the sole and the upper head-foot areas are less strongly or not pigmented.

This and the fact that in resting position the buccal mass is considerably withdrawn, caused early workers to believe that a radula was missing in this group resulting in classifications of the Architectonicidae as an "aglossate" or "gymnoglossate" group, e.

Two main radular types are realized in the family: a five-toothed "taenioglossate-like" radula and a "ptenoglossate-like" radula with numerous marginal teeth Figs.

The first is thought to be derived from a typical taenioglossate caenogastropod radula with seven teeth per row, by loss of the pair of laterals BIELER, It is the most common radular type in the family, present in all genera but Architectonica, Adelphotectonica, Discotectonica and Granosolarium.

The "ptenoglos- sate-like" radula, present in Architectonica and Adelphotectonica, is considered second- arily derived from the five-toothed one, by multiplication of the marginals see 'Phylogeny and Fossil Record,' below.

Instead of a true radula, Discotectonica and Granosolarium have an extremely long up to one-third of the shell diameter , toothed, rod-like cuticularized structure inside a large muscular blind sac see, e.

Homology and function of this structure are unclear. The jaws are long and narrow, consisting of numerous small elements arranged in mosaic-like fashion.

The length of the jaws ranges from 0. Sex distribution Sex distribution is very variable within the family. While sexes in the Mediterranean- Atlantic species Philippia hybrida LINNE, are strictly separate MINNITI et al.

The single type of architectonicid sperm was shown to differ greatly from the "prosobranch" type. It shares several features with the Euthyneura structure of mature and developing acrosome, periodically-banded coarse fibers, modified midpiece development, pattern of nuclear condensation , while other characters separate it from that group e.

Architectonicid rndulne SEM. A probably homologous structure, a long, transversely banded column interpolated between the base of the spermatozoan nucleus and the acrosome of the mid p iece, was described for A rchitectonica perpectiva by H EA LY Nei ther of these structures was found in Psilaxis oxytropis see H EA LY, Ar chitectonicid spermatophores have been described from Heliacus.

They cons ist of lo ng mm , coiled tubes, and are handled and possibly mo lded by a sperm a- tophore groove extending o nto part of the proboscis ROBERTSON, Eggs and larval development Spawn masses are kn own fro m species of the genera Architectonica and H eliacus.

They consist of soft, gelatino us, sa usage-shaped masses, usually depend ing on animal-size several centimeters lo ng and about three millimeters in diameter.

They are ancho red to the substrate by sticky mucus. Release Dates. Official Sites. Company Credits. Technical Specs.

Plot Summary. Plot Keywords. Parents Guide. Credit: Beth. Centers for disease control and prevention. Credit: Fleuve rdc.

Credit: Einsamer Schütze. Oil on canvas, by Ivan Aivazovsky — Credit: Doug Kerr. National Eye Institute. Emergency military hospital during influenza epidemic, Camp Funston, Kansas, USA.

Source: Pandemic Influenza: The Inside Story. Nicholls H, PLoS Biology Vol. Credit: Mark Knobil. Author: T. Gnaevus Faber.

Source: NIH Record. Credit: James Heilman, MD. Credit: Sandyjameslord. Mason; published in: Fox GH. Photographic Illustrations of Skin Diseases. List of Figures xvii Fig.

Source: Fox GH. Photographic Illustrations of Skin Diseases, 2nd edition. Author: Barcex. The side shown faces the baby with the umbilical cord top right.

The unseen side connects to the uterine wall. The white fringe surrounding the bottom is the remnants of the amniotic sac.

Photo by Jeremy Kemp. Photographer: Richardfabi. Source: Anatomist Source: Pearson Scott Foresman. Source: Chromolithograph by T. Merry, Source: Ceccomaster.

Source: Ashish j Source: Paintingiant. Source: U. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Source: Pierre Arents. Cut surface shows pallor due to fat accumulation in liver cells.

Source: Folger Shakespeare Library Digital Image Collection. List of Figures xix Fig. Author: Wide World Photos. By Dorofield Hardy, a copy of the original by Robert Home now in the Royal Society, ca.

Author: Emeldir. Author: Ahmed H. Source: cyclonebill from Copenhagen, Denmark. Credit: Herbert L. Fred, MD; Hendrik A.

Credit: Ravi Poorun [oddityinabox]. Source: Zolliker Jahrheft The permanent incisor teeth are narrow and notched. Note the notched edges and "screwdriver" shape of the central incisors.

Source: KRUIF, Paul de. Orell Füssli, Zürich, Author: Ignote. Author: Cecilia Beaux. Author: Mcjudy. Colored reproduction of an etching after G.

Cruikshank, Source: Dpbsmith. Source: Oesterreichs Tibur. Scanned by Hubertl. List of Figures xxi Fig.

Author: Matthew Goodwin. Author: Bobjalindo. Photo by VanessaQ. Author: George Henry Fox. Author: Tara C Gangadhar, Elisabeth Von der Lohe, Stephen G Sawada and Paul R Helft.

Author: Tim Starling. Author: Janice Haney Carr. Author: Columbusite. Author: Flominator. Author: mysteriouskyn.

From: Gray H. Anatomy of the Human Body. Source: Character sketches from Charles Dickens, Portrayed by Kyd. Artist: Francisco de Zurbaran — Credit: Taragui.

Author: MarkusMark. Credit: From the excavations of Jacques de Morgan. Source: Marie-Lan Nguyen, Artist: J. Author: Mark James Miller. Author: John Tenniel — Southern in Source: Gitschier J Problem Solved: An Interview with Sir Edwin Southern.

PLoS Genet 9 3 : e Author: Jane Gitscher. I realized this recently when a neighbor brought me a report from her doctor, a document containing terms like sclerosis, dextroscoliosis, and white matter.

She was flummoxed by the clinical argot and concerned that she had some serious dis- ease. I was able to translate the report into plain English and reassure her that what she had was more or less consistent with her age of But in doing so, I felt a little like Samoset, translating for the Pilgrims of Plymouth Colony as they disembarked the Mayflower to share land with Native Americans in The language of medicine is more or less English, but it is a very specialized subset of English, a sort of scholarly jargon.

There are classical allusions, meta- phors, similes, eponyms, acronyms, authorisms, and honorisms. And our clinical dialect can, to patients and their families, be mysterious and often fearful.

It cer- tainly can be confusing, with some persons believing, for instance, that hyperten- sion is a synonym for anxiety.

For those of us in the health profession, knowing word histories can help us use terms precisely. When I wonder about the sense of a word, I find it useful to look up the original meaning.

Think about the acetabulum. We modern clinicians describe the calcaneal tendon connecting the gastroc- nemius and soleus muscles to the tuberosity of the calcaneus as the Achilles ten- don, an eponym that has persisted for centuries.

Those with a liberal arts education will recognize the tale of how the nymph Thetis, the mother of the Greek hero Achilles, dipped him as an infant into the River Styx, holding him by the heel Fig.

This dunking made him invulnerable to injury except in the one site that. The tendon did not receive the sobriquet Achilles until so named in by Dutch anatomist Philip Verheyen — , after he had dissected his own amputated leg.

The clinical nuance of the eponym is not just the anatomical connection between muscle and bone; it is that the Achilles tendon is a site of vulnerability—the so-called Achilles heel—as any victim of an Achilles tendon rupture will attest.

Here is an amusing anecdote about a tendon injury: In , Australian dancer Victor Goulet ruptured his Achilles tendon. Surgeons replaced his damaged tendon with a transplant from a wallaby [1].

We can only imagine the changes to the course of medical history if the word wallaby were to supplant Achilles in discussion of either the tendon or the heel.

For example, accord- ing to researchers at Reading University in the United Kingdom, the words I, we, two, and three date back many millennia, perhaps as much as 40, years.

Thus English shares a common ancestry with such diverse modern tongues as Persian, Hindi, Catalan, Yiddish, Polish, and several dozen others.

What about medical words as a subset of modern English? It weighs 8. The source of most of the words described is ancient Greek or Latin. The author found that Greek was the source of Some combination words had roots that came from both Greek and Latin, and in some cases, the Greek or Latin roots are com- bined with another language.

Only a few medical terms, 2. How many new words does a student learn in the 4 years of medical school? There is no precise answer to this question, but one author has gone out on a limb, estimating that the average college graduate has a vocabulary of some 15, words and adds another 15, words during medical school education.

That calculates to words per year, approximately ten new words each day [5]. I have continued my fascination with words and have acquired many more than my share of books about word origins, especially those that tell the beginnings of medical terms.

The evidence of this assertion lies in the bibliography at the end of this book. The field of knowledge that is concerned with word derivations is etymology, this word itself coming from two ancient Greek words meaning the study of the true sense of a word.

Latin has given us, directly assimilated into our medical vocabulary, stapes stirrup and cervix neck. None of these terms will change.

In , the English language reached a milestone when web 2. Words, including those used by health care professionals, are actually living things. Words have personalities.

Each word has appeal or lack of it, status, and ancestry. Words also mate, yielding progeny—neologisms formed by linking word roots and other parts.

Combining syllables with distinct meanings has given us thousands of what were once medical neologisms. Some medical words are pleasing: a few of my favorites are borborygmus, mur- mur, and serendipity the latter often applied to scientific discoveries.

I am also partial to onomatopoeia, used in the title of Chap. Hendrickson [6] reports that American poet Carl Sandburg — was partial to Monongahela, while Irish author James Joyce — favored cuspidor.

Alabaster was among the favor- ite words of British philosopher Bertrand Russell — But I may have a slight bias, because I grew up in the town of Monongahela, Pennsylvania.

On the other hand, there are some unpleasant-sounding words in medicine. Examples include flatulent, grippe, and scabies.

Scatological is an ugly word; moron is mean. In fact, Pagel predicts that before too many decades have passed, some words—such as dirty, guts, wipe, and stab—will pass into lexicographic oblivion, having been replaced with more euphonious synonyms [2].

Clearly words, including medical words, have social status. In ancient Rome, there were the patricians upper class and the plebeians commoners.

If they were alive today and speaking English, the patricians would say perspire, expectorate, abdomen, and underarm. The plebeians would use the words sweat, spit, belly, and armpit.

From Latin, we get dura mater tough mother , and vagus wandering is the name of the seemingly peripatetic tenth cranial nerve.

Flatus describes a puff of wind in Latin. Nonclassical languages have given us many medical words, such as cascara a plant with laxative properties, Spanish , tsutsugamushi dangerous bug, Japanese , and agar a gelati- nous substance derived from seaweed, Malay.

As an example, the word quinsy, indicating a severe and perhaps obstructing throat infection, began in ancient Greek as kynan- chein, meaning to choke a dog.

The word was adapted into Latin as quinancia, to strangle. It then became qwinaci in Old French and later quinsy in English. Thus ends the etymology lesson.

The next nine chapters in the book are more about descriptive narratives than etymologic lexicography. In Chap. Here I will tell about our use of the words nausea, rabies, carotid, and digitalis.

Although most medical words come to us from or through Greek and Latin, other languages have contributed to our current clinical lexicon. Sources include not only the Indo-European languages other than Greek or Latin.

We also use words that have come from Asian, South American, Pacific Island, Arabic, and other tongues. Examples found in Chap.

Colchicine, ammonia, magnesia, and plaster of Paris all were named for places, although some took some fascinating turns through history, as described in Chap.

Chapter 6 is about metaphors, similes, and echoic words—what something looks like or sounds like—and how these words happened to emerge and survive.

Examples include pica, mitral, ether, and whooping cough. Chapter 7 tells stories you may not know about the Circle of Willis, Huntington chorea, and Christmas disease.

Who first gave us the words tonic, streptococcus, anaphylaxis, angina pectoris, and the longest word in the English language; and what are the accounts surrounding these invented words?

All the medical terms in this book have origins that are interesting somehow. Chapter 9 tells of some that are especially intriguing.

How does heaven relate to the origin of the word influenza? How did the innominate artery get its name? What architectural feature inspired the creation of the term fornicate?

And what is the story behind the Kochleffel syndrome? METAL BOYS — Colt 45 6. ARTICLED OF FAITH — remain in memory 7.

BOSKOPS — kein Mitleid 9. KILLING […]. REBEL TRUTH — child hosts the parasite 2. PTV3 — hookah chalice 3. THE CLASH — clash city rockers 4.

PHOSPHOR — O mein Star 5. AHEADS — stuff it 6. KLAUS NOMI — three wishes 7. RAZZIA — pro future 8. NEW DIMENSION — Stuttgart schwarz 9.

RAZORS — I hate FAMILY 5 — Japaner in Düsseldorf 2. KERBHOLZ — squatter song 3. FSK — kleiner Polizist ein Kind für Helmut 5. ANGELIC UPSTARTS — police oppression 6.

GBH — generals 7. DIE AUTOS — niemals 7. EDUARD NENEZ — cochon quis en dedit 8. Home Was solls? Posted in: by Mark No Comments 2.

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Posted in: by Mark 2 Comments BLADE LOKI , BOYS BOYS , CELA NR. Posted in: by Mark No Comments ALEXANDER VON BORSIG , ÄPYLI , BOLDOG IDÖK , CORRUPTED IDEALS , DWARVES , EINSTÜRZENDE NEUBAUTEN , F , KLEENEX , MÜLLSTATION , PEGGIO PUNX , POISONOUS CROSS GIBBET , POWER AGE , PSYCHIC TV , PTV 3 , PURRKUR PILLNIKK , THROBBING GRISTLE , VERDUN , X-TG , ZONZILE.

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